Wetland Resources Action Planning (WRAP) Toolkit

An integrated action planning toolkit to conserve aquatic resources and biodiversity by promoting sustainable use

2.2 Development of Action Plans

Organization of Activities


The development of the Integrated Action Plans was organized by the HighARCS site teams.

All the teams followed the overall steps and procedures described in the Joint Strategic Planning.

The more specific way of organizing these steps and procedures varied from team to team, according to their location, the type of institution they were, and

  • The team in West Bengal (CDHI) was able to add the HighARCS activities into its main practices of organization, training and capacity building with local village groups. This partner had its main office facilities quite close to the project site, and action plan making with these village people was an already on-going practice. A well-developed organizational structure with local village-based field workers allowed continuity and felt presence at the sites.
  • The teams responsible for the Uttarakhand site and the two Vietnamese sites faced the challenge of operating in a different state or (for Vietnam) very far from where their offices were located. The team responsible for the Uttarakhand site was based in a different state, West Bengal. The members of the team came from a West Bengali state government research institute and a local NGO specialised in wetlands management and development. The Vietnamese team was based in the capital Hanoi and its members belonged to a government research institute specialised in aquaculture. For both teams, this meant that contacts with local stakeholders were more difficult and therefore less frequent than the case of the CDHI team. Also these two teams did not have an existing organizational set-up with local field workers. They therefore had to make many activities happen during the short periods of their presence at the sites.
  • The Chinese team came from a major university. The team also lived quite far from the site, but less far from their site than the Uttarakhand and Vietnamese teams. The access was easier and travel time considerably shorter than for the two mentioned other teams, and the Chinese team was by far the biggest one of the HighARCS teams. Consequently, they were able to undertake frequent travels and get in touch with many different groups of stakeholders.


Description of the Integrated Action Planning Process (docx) Eight phases of an integrated action planning process were identified to guide other initiatives, encompassing stakeholder assessment and engagement, through rapport building and agreement on collaboration, integrated assessment of biodiversity, livelihoods, ecosystems services and policy and conflicts, joint problem analysis and target setting, joint strategic planning, joint planning and organisation of activities, coordinated implementation and joint monitoring, to joint evaluation of impacts and revised target setting.
CME Guidelines (pdf) Specific Communication, Monitoring and Evaluation (CME) requirements for the Joint Strategic Planning phase include the participation of stakeholders in the research, planning and implementation processes and the capability of key stakeholders to implement the joint plan.Key stakeholders should be identified as they are the groups whose participation in the planning and implementation processes will be crucial.
Draft Integrated Action Plan Formulation (pdf) Draft Integrated Action Plans should be formulated based on integrated assessment outcomes and conservation, livelihoods and policy needs identified by communities, stakeholder groups and policy-makers. Systematic representation of multiple-perspectives in the form of integrated action plans is an important starting point to verify the actions proposed by particular stakeholder groups and to elicit reflections on the proposals of others from other resource user groups and stakeholder with different priorities.
Stakeholder Identification and Engagement (pdf) Drawing on preliminary stakeholder engagement (2.1) all groups with a potential role to play in implementing the draft action plan should be identified and vulnerable people, notably poor and marginal community members including women, young people and older people, that may be disproportionately affected by changes to aquatic resources access and management regimes should be engaged in assessing and refining the integrated action plan. Representation of biodiversity and environmental concerns can often be overlooked and appropriate advocates should be identified to participate in the process.
Facilitate Interactive Stakeholder Participation (pdf) Arrange meetings with communities, households and stakeholders (relevant to the Integrated Action Plans) to discuss, elaborate and revise draft IAPs and seek support and better understand potential barriers to proposed actions and subsequent implementation. A detailed description of how to do this is included here based on focus groups discussions conduced in Vietnam.
Convene Joint Stakeholder Assessment Workshops Convene a joint stakeholder workshop, bringing together different communities and stakeholders. Present a summary of outcomes from the joint assessment process and introduce important new knowledge in plenary sessions. Ask assembled community members and selected stakeholder representatives to review and revise Integrated Action Plans in light of plenary sessions and then present IAPs to the assembled workshop participants for critical review and to garner broad-based support.
Indicator Selection - IAP Process and Impacts (docx) Indicators can be identified for two distinct categories with regards Integrated Action Plans implementation: indicators relating to the process; and indicators relating to the impacts of IAP implementation.
Integrated Action Plan Outline and Structure (pdf) An outline of a reporting format was prepared to ensure documentation of the integrated action plan development process and resulting management proposals was comprehensive and consistent across sites, potentially enabling comparative assessment between sites and the identification of common constraints and opportunities.

Type of Outputs

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1.0 Integrated Approach

How to integrate action planning research and implementation across disciplines to avoid duplication and contradictory results and practices

Lessons Learned







2.1 Wetland Assessment

How to assess the biodiversity, livelihood, and ecosystem services values and identify policy and conflicts at a wetland site

diversity assessment

system services valuation



elihood assessment

icy assessment


2.2 Development of Integrated Action Plans

How to work with stakeholders to identify and implement actions needed at a wetland site


nt strategic planning

anization of activities


2.3 Implementation, Monitoring & Evaluation

How to develop monitoring and evaluation of the processes and action plans put in place

Impacts and Outcomes
To be developed

Wetland Assessment
Development of Action Plans
Implementation, Monitoring & Evaluation