Wetland Resources Action Planning (WRAP) Toolkit

An integrated action planning toolkit to conserve aquatic resources and biodiversity by promoting sustainable use

Working Glossary for the HighARCS Project

This glossary aims to provide a straightforward explanation of some of the terms used in the project document, including phrases that have subsequently been introduced by partners. This glossary is not intended to be definitive but should evolve as our joint understanding develops and as new words and phrases are added.

To reach or gain access to; the right to obtain or make use of or take advantage of something (such as services or membership). In the context of academic fieldwork it refers to the process whereby researchers seek the right to conduct research in a particular region or community, either through formal or informal mechanisms. http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn

Action Plan
A set of actions or activities aimed to help overcome a problem or constitute an improvement in the conservation, management and wise-use of highland aquatic resources. Ideally, these actions should be proposed and supported by a broad range of stakeholders. Actions that benefit more than one stakeholder or user group will engender more support. Some stakeholders may not have been involved in proposing the actions or may not support the actions and this should be acknowledged and the reasons for this understood and addressed.

Action Plan Implementation
As soon as an Action Plan has been proposed, any initiative or action taken as a result of having the plan in place could be considered implementation. Even the existence of an Action Plan developed in conjunction with stakeholders may change people’s perceptions and agenda. The first practical step in implementation is likely to involve testing the feasibility of the proposed actions, seeking clarification or approval and support from stakeholders not yet involved or who might be able to help or hinder the activities proposed.

Action Planning Process
The Action Plan Process begins from the beginning, from identifying the need for actions or problem(s) to be addressed, to stakeholder engagement and assessment of values of the site. This may involve people staking their claim to involvement, defending their position, sharing knowledge and information, revising goals and expectations, participating in research and events (e.g., workshops and meetings, etc.) that lead to the preparation of the Action Plan. The process continues through to implementation and ultimately, reassessment of the situation and revision of the Action Plan.

Societies are structured and organised by age in a variety of ways. Ageing is not merely a biological process that ‘naturally’ affects everyone, as age is also socially determined and experiences of age vary through time and place. Different cultures attach a range of meanings and values to different age groups, and this affects the way people behave and how they treat others. Age is a social variable similar to other variables, such as gender, ethnicity and class. Attitudes and understanding of different age categories are shaped by several interrelated factors such as the social, political and historical context, ideologies, language and the media. Thus, age is a social construction as a society’s understanding of age can change through history and in different cultures.

Amenity Value
The non-monetary, intangible value of a good or service, for example, environmental or landscape benefit of trees rather than their commercial value as a timber crop. http://www.forestry.gov.uk/fr/infd-5uwjwz

The controlled rearing of fish or shellfish by people or corporations who own the harvestable product, often involving the capture of the eggs or young of a species from wild sources, followed by rearing more intensively than possible in nature. http://www.nrdc.org/reference/glossary/a.asp

Aquatic Resources
Comprise the living and non-living components of a water body. Aquatic Resources refers to water and its multiple roles as a natural resource and in supporting all human, animal and plant life. http://www.aquaticresources.bio.txstate.edu/about_whatis.html

Biodiversity is the variability among living organisms and the ecological complexes of which they are part; this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems (MEA, 2005).

Bioeconomic Modeling
Bioeconomic modeling in the HighARCS project refers to combining the assessment of production activities (e.g. fishing, agriculture, horticulture, aquaculture) with financial analysis of capital costs, operating costs and output values. This is different from the application of bioeconomic models related to fish stock assessments and fisheries management.

Class, refers to the economic divisions within a society based upon wealth.

In ecology, a community is an assemblage of two or more populations of different species occupying the same geographical area. This term is used only to describe biotic factors.

In the social context it refers to a group of people living in a particular local area or a social group possessing or representing shared beliefs and values, stable membership, and the expectation of continued interaction. It may be defined geographically, by political or resource boundaries, or socially, as a community of individuals with common interests. http://commdev.org/section/glossary

Cost-benefit Analysis
An analysis of the cost effectiveness of different alternatives in order to see whether the benefits outweigh the costs. http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn

Delphi Method
A systematic, interactive forecasting method which relies on a panel of experts. The experts answer questionnaires in two or more rounds. After each round, a facilitator provides an anonymous summary of the experts’ forecasts from the previous round as well as the reasons they provided for their judgments. Thus, experts are encouraged to revise their earlier answers in light of the replies of other members of their panel. It is believed that during this process the range of the answers will decrease and the group will converge towards the "correct" answer. Finally, the process is stopped after a pre-defined stop criterion (e.g. number of rounds, achievement of consensus, stability of results) and the mean or median scores of the final rounds determine the results. See also “Stakeholder Delphi Method”.

The condition of having a variety of characters or forms or components. The condition of having increased variety.

The DPSIR framework is a decision-support system or a problem structuring method used in HighARCS to understand the state and causes of degradation of the aquatic resources and ecosystems in order to identify appropriate solutions for remedial action. DPSIR stands for Driving Forces, Pressures, State, Responses.

Economic Evaluation
An assessment of the economic impact of an intervention, program, or policy. http://www.thecommunityguide.org/about/glossary.html

Community of plants, animals and other living organisms, together with the non- living components of their environment, found in a particular habitat and interacting with each other. A dynamic complex of plant, animal, fungal, and microorganism communities and their associated non-living environment interacting as an ecological unit.

Ecosystem Health
A systematic approach to the preventive, diagnostic, and prognostic aspects of ecosystem management, and to the understanding of relationships between ecosystem health and human health. It seeks to understand and optimize the intrinsic capacity of an ecosystem for self-renewal while meeting reasonable human goals. It encompasses the role of societal values, attitudes and goals in shaping our conception of health at human and ecosystem scales. http://www.med.uwo.ca/ecosystemhealth/education/glossary.htm

Ecosystem Services
Ecosystem services are the benefits people obtain from ecosystems. These include provisioning services such as food and water; regulating services such as flood and disease control; cultural services such as spiritual, recreational, and cultural benefits; and supporting services, such as nutrient cycling, that maintain the conditions for life on Earth (MEA, 2005).

A category for HighARCS outputs, i.e., outputs as evidence of project activity and proof of process concept such as workshop proceedings and project reports.

Reviewing and reflecting on actions contained in the Action Plan should highlight certain conditions required to achieve the desired outcomes. These conditions could be grouped and assessed under Social, Technical, Environmental, Political or Sustainability headings (STEPS for short). Testing the feasibility of the proposed actions with stakeholders in this way will be a preliminary part of Implementation. Some Action might turn out to be impossible or inappropriate, in which case the Action Plan will need to be revised. This could constitute a significant development as groups may support unrealistic goals and expectations.

Being a gender neutral term, fisher(s) is preferably used in HighARCS reports to collectively refer to fisherman and/or fisherwoman. However, when the fishers have different skills there might be a need to differentiate between fishermen and fisherwomen, such as since women are more likely to be engaged in gleaning shellfish or selling fish so then we would write about fisherwomen as opposed to fishermen.

Focus Group Interviews
Carefully planned group discussions conducted by trained moderators. A small number of questions, developed in advance, is used to generate in-depth consideration of a narrowly defined topic. Focus groups examine perceptions, feelings, attitudes and ideas. http://www.unk.edu/academicaffairs/assessment.aspx

Focus Group
A group selected for its relevance to a particular area of investigation that is engaged by a trained facilitator in discussions designed to share insights, ideas, and observations on the area of concern. Focus groups are typically open ended, discursive, and used to gain a deeper understanding of respondents' attitudes and opinions. A key feature is that participants are able to interact with, and react to, each other. The group dynamic often provides richer insights and data than would have been achieved by interviewing the participants individually and can offer insights into power relations in action. http://commdev.org/section/glossary

Food Insecure
Refers to a situation where there is no access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food for an active and healthy life. http://www.higharcs.org/www.farmafrica.org.uk/smartweb/news-%C2%A0views/glossary

The socially constructed roles ascribed to males and females and resulting socially determined relations. Gender roles are learned, change over time, and vary widely within and across cultures. Gender is a key variable in social analysis. It is important to understand the social, economic, political, and cultural forces that determine how men and women participate in, benefit from, and control project resources and activities. Social analysis should highlight gender-specific constraints, risks, and opportunities. http://commdev.org/section/glossary

Gender Analysis
A gender analysis takes into account the different roles of men and women (productivity, reproduction, decision-making; the differences in reaching and using resources for men and women; their unique and specific needs, areas of interest, problems and obstacles faced. Gender analysis strives to ensure that men and women share the activities of a project in an equal and fair manner, and benefit from the project’s results in a similar manner. http://www.avrupa.info.tr/Bilgi_Kaynaklari/Terimler_Sozlugu,Glossary_S.html

A generation is a particular age group that lives through the same historical and social events. People of a similar age share a common historical experience and may develop a sense of identity or social solidarity. History and social change can impact differently upon the age-based experiences according to the generation people are born into. Like age, generations are also socially and culturally constructed. People attach values, meanings and practices to different generations, and some age groups can be perceived as more important than others. A generational analysis which seeks to understand the nature of intergenerational and intragenerational relations across the life course enables different perspectives and needs of children, young people and older people to be taken into account.

The environment that provides the resources necessary for the continued survival of a population.

Elevated land that could be mountainous or hilly. (See also uplands)

The basic residential unit in which economic production, consumption, inheritance, child rearing, and shelter are organized and carried out"; [the household] "may or may not be synonymous with family". The household is the basic unit of analysis in many social, microeconomic and government models. The term refers to all individuals who live in the same dwelling. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Household

A category for HighARCS outputs, i.e., outputs that convey the impacts arising from Integrated Action Plan development and implementation, for example, changes occurring on the ground in terms of biodiversity, ecosystems and livelihoods.

The structures and mechanisms of social order and cooperation governing the behaviour of a set of individuals within a given human collectivity. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Institutions

Introduced and invasive species
Introduced (aka alien, exotic, non-indigenous, or non-native) species are those species found outside of their natural range. Invasive species are those introduced species that that are established and also cause substantial harm to biodiversity and human livelihood.

IUCN Red List
The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species™ is a comprehensive and objective global approach for evaluating the conservation status of plant and animal species. http://www.iucnredlist.org/

Subsistence, or the means of obtaining it. One's profession, trade or employment. http://ww.experiencefestival.com/hinduism_dictionary

Majority World
Economically poorer areas or countries encompassing the continents of Asia, Africa and Latin America where most people in the world live and which have, on a global scale, the greater land mass.

Minority World
Wealthier areas or countries in Europe, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, US and Canada where the minority of people in the world lives. Compared to the Majority World, the Minority World supports fewer inhabitants and has a smaller land mass. The people in the Minority World usually exhibit more privileged lifestyles.

A systematic process of data collection, analysis, interpretation, review, and reporting to inform decision-makers about the condition, the performance, and progress of specific projects. http://www.qualityplanning.org.nz/definitions/index.php

Non-use Values
Refers to the fact that people are willing to pay to protect environmental resources so that other people can use them. It can also refer to the values derived from an ecosystem or livelihood which are not of direct material utility to households e.g. aesthetic or cultural satisfaction.

HighARCS project outputs are categorized in different ways in terms of their relationship to the integrated action planning process and their potential usefulness to prospective users of the WRAP toolkit. See evidence, results, impacts and outcomes.

Participatory Action Research
Action oriented research in which the researchers and participants are partners in developing the question, intervention, and evaluation. http://ebn.bmj.com/content/8/4/128a.full

Participatory Monitoring
A collaborative process of collecting and analyzing data and communicating the results in an attempt to identify and solve problems together. It includes a variety of people in all stages of the monitoring process and incorporates methods and indicators meaningful to the appropriate stakeholders. Traditionally, companies and agencies initiate and undertake monitoring. Participatory monitoring requires changing the dynamic so that a wider range of stakeholders assume responsibility for these tasks and learn and benefit from the results. Participatory monitoring is not only scientific, but also social, political, and cultural. It requires openness, a willingness to listen to different points of view, a recognition of the knowledge and role of different participants, and the ability to give credit where credit is due. http://commdev.org/section/glossary

Performance Indicators
Measures used to define and assess progress towards objectives.

A policy is a statement of intent, and is implemented as a procedure or protocol to guide decisions and achieve rational outcomes. Policies can be understood as political, management, financial and administrative mechanisms arranged to reach explicit goals (http://wikipedia.org/wiki/Policy)

A measure of the capacity or efficiency of a biological system to convert energy into growth and production. In the context of livelihoods research it can also refer to the rate of output from human labour.

The capacity of a system to tolerate impacts without irreversible change in its outputs or structure. In relation to species or populations, it is often understood as the capacity to withstand exploitation.

A category for HighARCS outputs, i.e., outputs that constitute new knowledge and results in terms of scientific findings framed against HighARCS Research Questions.

River Basin
The area of land drained by a river and its tributaries.

Stakeholders are referred to throughout the project proposal. However, drawing on the DFID Sustainable Livelihoods Guidance Sheets (DFID, 2001) further refinement in the classification of stakeholders is proposed, where: primary stakeholders are the intended beneficiaries of reform and key stakeholders are those who can influence the outcome of the reform process. Within the category of key stakeholders it has been useful in some cases to differentiate further between secondary and tertiary stakeholders - based on geographic scale, management role and interest.

Stakeholder Analysis
A process that seeks to identify and describe the interests and relationships of all the stakeholders in a given project. It is a necessary precondition to participatory planning and project management. http://commdev.org/section/glossary

Stakeholder Delphi Method
The stakeholder Delphi Method is a technique to facilitate the interactive participation of varied and conceivably hierarchical and antagonistic stakeholder groups and in capitalising on their knowledge and opinions as valid input to research in an inexact research area (Bunting, 2010). The stakeholder Delphi technique is particularly appropriate when decision-making is required in a political or emotional environment, or when the decisions affect strong factions with opposing references. It is also considered good for giving equal attention to minority view points. We distinguish between the “classical Delphi”, where only subject-matter experts are involved as panel members (see “Delphi Method”), and the “Stakeholder Delphi Method”, where experts as well as local authorities and important concerned stakeholder are included.

Sustainable Development
Resource use that promotes environmental conservation and a climate of sociopolitical peace.

Sustainable Livelihoods Practices
Livelihood activities of people in the communities which enable them to survive and meet their basic needs, and cope within their context of vulnerability, while protecting the livelihoods of future generations.

Sustainable Management
Finding a balance between meeting the needs of our current generation while conserving natural resources and protecting the environment for the benefit of future generations.

Threatened Species
Those species assessed against the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria that are facing a higher risk of global extinction (i.e. those listed as Critically Endangered, Endangered and Vulnerable).

In a geological context, land that is at a higher elevation than the alluvial plain or stream terrace, which are considered to be lowlands.

Watershed Management
The analysis, protection, development, operation or maintenance of the land, vegetation, and water resources of a drainage basin for the conservation of all its resources for the benefit of its residents.

Wetlands are areas of marsh, fen, peatland or water, whether natural or artificial, permanent or temporary, with water that is static or flowing, fresh, brackish or salt, including areas of marine water the depth of which at low tide does not exceed six metres (Ramsar, 2013).

Wise Use
In the HighARCS project, we have used the definition adopted by the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands (2005): “Wise use of wetlands is the maintenance of their ecological character, achieved through the implementation of ecosystem approaches, within the context of sustainable development”.

Other References:

Bunting, S.W. 2010. Assessing the stakeholder Delphi for facilitating interactive participation and consensus building for sustainable aquaculture development. Society and Natural Resources 23, 758-775.

DFID. 2001. Sustainable livelihoods guidance sheets. United Kingdom Governments’ Department for International Development, London, UK.)

MEA (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment). 2005. Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Biodiversity Synthesis. World Resources Institute, Washington D.C.

Ramsar, 2013. The Convention on Wetlands text, as amended in 1982 and 1987. The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands.